Literary Awards and Prizes
 
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 Booker Prize   British Book Awards   Commonwealth Writers’ Prize   Costa (Whitbread) Book Award   Giller Prize   Governor General's Literary Award   Guardian First Book (Fiction) Award   Hugo Award   International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award   James Tait Black Memorial Prize   John Llewellyn Rhys Prize   Miles Franklin Literary Award   National Book Award   National Book Critics Circle Award   Nebula Award   Nobel Prize in Literature   Orange/Baileys Prize for Fiction   PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction   Pulitzer Prize   Writers' Trust of Canada Fiction Prize 
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There are hundreds of book awards, some general, some specific, some based on country or region, some on genre (see Wikipedia's list of literary awards).
I have selected some of the most prestigious and well-known and, for reasons of conciseness and my own personal interests, just those which deal with English language fiction. This database lists the winners and shortlists (where available) of these selected awards for each year. It is also searchable using the search form at the top of each page.
You may also be interested in Modern Library's list of the 100 Best Novels or another similar list or the Guardian's list of the Worldwide Top 100 Fiction Books or this combined list or this list of Science Fiction Classics.

Award Description
Booker Prize Now known as the Man Booker Prize, a literary prize awarded each year for the best original full-length novel written in the English language by a citizen of either the Commonwealth of Nations (British Commonwealth) or Ireland. Originally called the Booker-McConnell Prize after the Booker-McConnell company began sponsoring the event in 1968 with a £21,000 cash prize. Since 2002, it has been sponsored by the Man Group with a £50,000 prize. Since 2005, a separate biennial prize, the Man Booker International Prize, has also been awarded, for which any living author in the world may qualify. Shortlist: September; Winner: October. (Website)
British Book Awards Awarded annually since 1990 and promoted by the UK publishing industry, the awards are also known as the 'Nibbies' for the trophy given to winners in a number of different categories. Since 2009, it has become known as the National Book Awards, and was sponsored from 2007 to 2011 by Galaxy and since then by SpecSavers. This database lists the Book of the Year category winners. Winner announced: November. (Website)
Commonwealth Writers’ Prize A leading award for fiction, first bestowed in 1987. It is organized and funded by the Commonwealth Foundation, and is open to new fiction by writers from the any of the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations (British Commonwealth). For each of the four geographical regions, two prizes of £1,000 are awarded, one for Best Book and one for Best First Book; the overall winners earn £10,000 for Best Book and £5,000 for Best First Book. This database lists the Best Book prize only. Shortlist: May; Winner: June. From 2014, the Commonwealth Book Prize has been discontinued to concentrate on short story writers. (Website)
Costa (Whitbread) Book Award Open to writers from the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Previously known as the Whitbread Book Award from its start in 1971 until 2006, when Costa Coffee, a subsidiary of Whitbread, took over sponsorship. There are six awards each year: Novel, First Novel, Biography, Poetry and Children’s Book (with a prize of £5,000 each) and the Book of the Year (selected from these five winners, with a prize of £25,000). This database lists the Novel prize only. Shortlist: November; Winner: January. (Website)
Giller Prize The Scotiabank Giller Prize is an annual award that goes to the author of a Canadian novel or short story fiction collection published in English (including translations). Established as the Giller Prize in 1994 by Toronto businessman Jack Rabinovitch in honour of his late wife Doris Giller with a cash reward of Can$25,000, sponsorship of the award was taken over by the Canadian bank Scotiabank in 2005 and the prize package was increased to Can$40,000 for the winner. Shortlist: October; Winner: November. (Website)
Governor General's Literary Award Created in 1936, and administered by the Canada Council for the Arts since 1957. Prizes are awarded for Canadian literature in both French and English in seven categories: Fiction, Non-fiction, Poetry, Drama, Children's Literature (Text), Children's Literature (Illustration), and Translation. In 2007, the cash prize for this award was raised to Can$25,000. This database lists the English Fiction award only. Shortlist: October; Winner: November. (Website)
Guardian First Book (Fiction) Award Originally established in 1965 as the Guardian Fiction Award by “The Guardian” newspaper in Britain, it was awarded annually to a work of fiction by British or Commonwealth writer and published in the UK. Since 1999, the prize has been open only to debut works in the field of either fiction or non-fiction and across all genres. The annual prize is worth £10,000 to the winner. Some of the winners since 1999 may fall into categories other than fiction. Shortlist: November; Winner: December. (Website)
Hugo Award Presented every year since 1953 for the best science fiction or fantasy works published in English (or translated) in the previous year. The Hugos, named after Hugo Gernsback, founder of the pioneering science fiction magazine "Amazing Stories", are science fiction’s most prestigious awards, and are chosen by members of the annual World Science Fiction Convention. Categories include Novel, Novella, Novelette, Short Story, Related Book, Dramatic Presentation, etc. This database lists the main Novel prize only. Shortlist: April; Winner: August. (Website)
International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award Established in 1996, the award is a joint initiative of the Dublin City Council, the Municipal Government of Dublin and the productivity improvement company IMPAC (and administered by Dublin City Public Libraries). The annual prize, open to novels written in any language and by authors of any nationality, provided the work has been published in English or English translation, is worth €100,000. Shortlist: April; Winner: June. (Website)
James Tait Black Memorial Prize Britain's oldest literary awards, founded in 1919 by Janet Coutts Black in memory of her late husband, James Tait Black, awards two annual prizes for literature written in the English language and first published in Britain, one for Fiction and one for Biography. The award is administered by the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, and the total prize fund was increased from £6,000 to £20,000 in 2005. This database lists the Fiction prize only. Shortlist: May; Winner: August. (Website)
John Llewellyn Rhys Prize A British-based literary prize presented for the best work of literature (fiction, non-fiction, poetry, drama) from Britain or the Commonwealth of Nations (British Commonwealth) written by an author of 35 or under. Initiated in 1942 by Jane Oliver to commemorate her late husband John Llewellyn Rhys, it was funded by the Mail on Sunday newspaper from 1987 to 2003, and since then, by Booktrust, an independent educational charity. The winner receives £5,000 and the runners up each receive £500. (Some of the winners may fall into categories other than fiction). Winner announced: August. The prize has been on hold since 2010. (Website)
Miles Franklin Literary Award Australia's largest annual literary prize is given for the best novel or play portraying Australian life “in any of its phases” published each year. Set up in 1957 according to the will of Australian author Miles Franklin, the award is now worth Aus$42,000. Shortlist: May; Winner: June. (Website)
National Book Award Started in 1950, the awards are presented annually for new literature by American authors, in four categories: Fiction, Non-Fiction, Poetry and Young People's Literature. The winners each receive a US$10,000 cash prize and a bronze sculpture; finalists each receive US$1,000, a medal, and a citation from the panel jury. This database lists the Fiction prize only. Shortlist: October; Winner: November. (Website)
National Book Critics Circle Award An annual award given by the National Book Critics Circle since 1975 to promote the finest English language books and reviews published in the United States. The main awards fall into six categories: Fiction, Non Fiction, Poetry, Memoir/Autobiography, Biography and Criticism. This database lists the Fiction prize only. Shortlist: January; Winner: March. (Website)
Nebula Award An award, given each year by the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America, for the best science fiction/fantasy fiction published in the United States. Initiated in 1965, there is no cash prize but winners receive a distinctive spiral nebula trophy. There are categories for Best Novel, Best Novella, Best Novellette, Best Short Story and Best Script. This database lists the Best Novel prize only. Shortlist: March; Winner: May. (Website)
Nobel Prize in Literature Awarded annually since 1901 to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work “of an idealistic tendency” (based on the recipient's entire body of published work, rather than a specific book). It was established under the will of the Swedish scientist, Alfred Nobel, and is administered by the Swedish Academy. Since 2001, the prize amount has been SwKr10 million (around US$1.4 million) and a gold medal. The winners could be novelists, poets, playwrights, historians, etc. Winner announced: October. (Website)
Orange/Baileys Prize for Fiction Founded in 1996 to celebrate the best novel written in English by a woman of any nationality. The prize is sponsored by the British company Orange Broadband until 2012, after which it was known as the Women's Prize for Fiction and then the Baileys Women's Prize for Fiction. The winner of the Prize for Fiction receives £30,000 and a bronze figurine (known as the 'Bessie'), and the winner of the Award for New Writers receives a £10,000 bursary. This database lists the Prize for Fiction only. Shortlist: April; Winner: May. (Website)
PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction Awarded annually since 1980 to the author of the best American work of fiction that year. It is awarded by the PEN/Faulkner Foundation (affiliated with the international writers' organization PEN), and is an outgrowth of American author William Faulkner's fund to support and encourage new fiction writers (out of his 1949 Nobel Prize winnings). The winner receives US$15,000 and each of four runners-up receives US$5,000. Shortlist: February; Winner: March. (Website)
Pulitzer Prize Established by the American journalist Joseph Pulitzer, the prize has been awarded since 1918 for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life. Before 1948 it was called the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel, changed in 1948 to the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. The winner receives a gold medal and a cash award of US$10,000 There are several other categories of awards including: Biography/Autobiography, Drama, General Non-Fiction, History, Music, Poetry and several categories of Journalism. This database lists the Fiction/Novel prize only. Winner announced: April. (Website)
Writers' Trust of Canada Fiction Prize First presented in 1997, the prize goes to the author of the Canadian novel or short story collection judged to be the year's best work of fiction. In addition to the Fiction Prize, there are Writers' Trust prizes for Non-Fiction, Emerging Writers, Political Writing, Children's Literature, Notable Author, etc. The Fiction Prize sponsor, Rogers Communication awards $25,000 to the winning book and $3,500 to each of the finalists. Shortlist: September; Winner: November. (Website)