Review Sheet for Physical Chemistry I 330, Lycoming College, Fall 2003, Dr. Mahler

**Chapter One** (all sections) States of gases; p, V,
T, n and how to measure these; Ideal Gas law and laws in it (Boyle's, Charles',
Dalton's, Avogadro's); Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics; Real gases - repulsive and
attractive forces, compression factor; other equations of state (van der Waals,
virial); critical point and constants (p, V, T); principle of corresponding
states. **Chapter 1**:
Exercises
1.4, 6, 8, 11, 13, 16, 19 (part a), 22, 25.

**Chapter Twenty Four** (section 1) Molecular motion in
gases Kinetic Theory of Gases; Maxwell distribution and types of molecular
speed; collision- diameter, -frequency, -cross section, and mean-free path. **
Chapter 24**:
Exercises
24.4, 5, 7.

**Chapter Two** (all sections) Definitions basic to
Thermodynamics (system, surroundings, open, closed, isolated, energy, work,
heat, diathermic, adiabatic, exothermic, endothermic, etc.); First Law of
Thermodynamics and internal energy (U); State functions; Expansion work, types
(free, (isothermal) reversible, against constant pressure); Reversible vs.
irreversible processes; Calorimetry and thermochemistry; Enthalpy (heat at
constant pressure), relation to U; Heat capacities; adiabatic changes; standard
enthalpy changes and Hess' law, thermochemical equations; Standard enthalpies of
formation; stoichiometric numbers; Group and Average Bond Enthalpies; Kirchoff's
law and enthalpy temperature dependence. **Chapter 2**:
Exercises
2.6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 16, 23, 27, 32, 37, 39, 45.

**Chapter Three** (all
sections) State functions and exact differentials; partial derivatives and their
properties; partial derivative properties for all systems and for ideal gases,
and their relations (heat capacities, π_{T}, expansion coefficient,
isothermal compressibility, (isothermal) Joule-Thomson coefficient); temperature
dependence of enthalpy; inversion temperature. **Chapter 3**: Exercises 3.9,
12a&b, 13, 18. Problems 3.12, 13, 14, 24.

**Chapter Four** (all sections) Second Law of
Thermodynamics; spontaneous change, order-disorder, and entropy; definition and
properties of entropy; applications of entropy - adiabatic processes, phase
transitions (Trouton's rule), Clausius inequality, expansion of ideal gas,
variation with temperature); Carnot cycle, engines, refrigerators and their
efficiencies; Third Law of Thermodynamics and Nernst Heat theorem; Third law
entropy and standard reaction entropies; Low temperatures; Helmholtz, A, and
Gibbs, G, (Free) Energies; A and maximum work; G and maximum non-expansion work;
standard Gibbs energy of formation and reaction. **Chapter 4**: Exercises
4.4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26.

** **

**Chapter Five** (all
sections) The fundamental equation (combining First and Second laws); Maxwell
equations and other partial derivative relationships - VAT of UGly SHiPs; G
variation with P and T; Thermodynamic equation of state; Gibbs-Helmholtz
equation; chemical potential; fugacity and pressure, real and ideal gases. **
Chapter 5**: Exercises 5.4, 5, 7, 12;
Problems 5.5, 6, 7, 8.

**Chapter Six **(sections 1-7) One-component system
phase diagrams and definitions (triple point, critical point, normal, etc.);
interpreting phase diagrams (real examples); simple phase rule; equilibrium and
chemical potential - phase transition boundaries; Clapeyron and
Clausius-Clapeyron equations; Ehrenfest classifications.**
Chapter 6**: Exercises 6.4, 5, 8, 11, 12, try 14;
Problem 6.3.

**Chapter Seven **Mixtures; Partial molar quantities
- volume and chemical potential; Mixing and its thermodynamics; Liquid solutions
- ideal, ideal-dilute, Raoult's and Henry's Laws; Colligative properties (b.p.
elevation, f.p. depression, osmotic pressure); activity -solvent and solute. **
Chapter 7: **Exercises 7.4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 21.

** **

**Chapter Eight** Multiple component phase diagrams
and the Phase Rule (component, constituent, phase, variance - degree of
freedom); Two component systems; Liquid-Vapor systems: pressure-composition
diagrams (interpretation, tie line, isopleth, lever rule);
temperature-composition diagrams (fractional distillation and theoretical
plates, azeotropes, immiscible liquids); Liquid-liquid systems (miscibility,
upper and lower critical temperatures); Liquid-Solid systems (eutectics,
compounds, congruent and incongruent melting, immiscible solids); Ultrapurity
and zone refining. **Chapter 8:** Exercises 8.4, 6, 9, 12, 13, 14, try 15,
16, 17, 18, 19.

**Chapter Nine **Spontaneous Chemical Reactions and
Equilibrium; Extent of reaction and Gibbs energy minimum; Equilibrium constant,
reaction Quotient (Q), relations to G; LeChatelier's Principle - response of K
and systems at equilibrium to changes in composition, pressure and temperature (van't
Hoff equation); Applications of Equilibria (brief acid-base chemistry). **
Chapter 9**: Exercises 9.5, 7, 8, 10, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19.

**Chapter Ten **(sections
2, 3, 4, 5)** **Ions and Electrochemistry; Properties of Ions in solution
(mean ionic activity coefficient); Debye-Hückel limiting law; Electrochemical
cells & their conventions and definitions; Half cells and half reactions;
Electrochemical relations (Nernst equation, standard potentials). Cell potential
and Gibbs Free Energy, Equilibrium constant, solubility product; **Chapter 10**:
Exercises 10.5, 8, 12, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 24, 29, 32.