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1801 Richard Trevithick developes high-pressure steam engine
1801 Thomas Jefferson becomes American President
1803 Napoleon sells Louisiana to America to finance his wars
1804 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark start fact-finding voyage across America
1804 Death of Emmanuel Kant (philosopher)
1804 Francis II declared first hereditary emperor of Austria
1804 Napoleon makes himself Emperor of France
1805 Death of Friedrich von Schiller (poet)
1805 British under Lord Horatio Nelson defeat Napoleon at Trafalgar
1806 Prussians defeated by Napoleon at Jena
1806 German Empire re-organized by Napoleon - end of Holy Roman Empire
1807 Russia signs friendly Treaty of Tilsit with Napoleon
1807 Slave trade abolished in Britain
1807 Napoleon controls most of Europe
1808 Napoleon takes Spain but loses it again in Peninsula Wars
1809 Uprising in Germany and Austria - war against Napoleon renewed
1810 Argentina first South American state to declare independence
1810 Simón Bolívar leads uprising against Spaniards in Venezuela
1811 Luddite riots against new technologies
1812 Napoleon's Grand Army destroyed - retreat from Moscow
1812 French and British forces repel American attacks on Canada
1813 Interior of Australia begins to be opened up
1814 British forces burn Washington before negotiating peace for Canada
1814 Congress of Vienna - after Napoleon's defeat, Russia gains Poland and Finland,
Netherlands acquires Belgium, and Prussia obtains Saxony and Ruhr
1814 Bourbon monarchy restored with Louis XVIII
1814 British missionaries start to convert Maoris of New Zealand
1814 George Stevenson builds first steam locomotive
1814 Denmark cedes Norway to Sweden
1814 Dutch cede Cape Colony to British
1815 Napoleon escapes exile in Elba and re-takes Paris
1815 British under Duke of Wellington finally defeat Napoleon at Waterloo
1817 Death of Jane Austen (writer)
1819 Sir Stanford Raffles founds British settlement at Singapore
1819 Spain cedes Florida territory to America
1820 Death of King George III of England
1820 Charles Babbage's Difference Engine - pre-cursor to computer
1822 Brazil becomes nominally independent of Portugal
1822 Colony for freed American slaves established in Liberia
1824 Repeal of Combination Acts - trade unions now legal in Britain
1824 Death of Lord Byron (poet)
1824 Charles X succedes as King of France
1825 Nicholas I becomes Tsar of Russia - Decembrist Uprising
1825 First railway (Stockton to Darligton) opened
1826 Dutch steamship "Curaçao" first to cross Atlantic
1826 Thomas Jefferson and John Adams die
1827 Death of Ludwig van Beethoven (composer)
1827 Death of John Dalton (chemist)
1827 Death of William Blake (poet and artist)
1828 Death of Francisco Goya (artist)
1828 Death of Chaka, great Zulu conqueror
1829 Catholic Emancipation Act passed in Britain
1829 London Police Force established by Sir Robert Peel
1830 Belgian revolution establishes independence from Netherlands
1830 Polish rebellion against Russia defeated
1830 Death of George IV - accession of William IV
1830 Mormon sect founded by Joseph Smith
1830 July Revolution makes Louis-Philippe "Citizen-King"
1830 Simón Bolívar dies having liberated northern half of South America
1830 French capture Algeria from Turks
1831 Death of Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (philosopher)
1831 Greece gains independence from Turkey with help from Britain
1832 Death of Johann Goethe (poet)
1832 Death of Sir Walter Scott (poet)
1832 First Parliamentary Reform Bill passed
1833 Death of Edmund Keane (Shakespearean actor)
1834 Tolpuddle Martyrs victimised to discourage trade unions
1834 Carlist Wars in Spain
1835 Conservative Party established by Sir Robert Peel
1836 People's Charter published by Chartists
1836 Great Trek of Boers (Afrikaners) from British South Africa
1837 Queen Victoria comes to British throne
1837 Death of John Constable (artist)
1837 Death of Alexander Pushkin (poet)
1837 Early photography pioneered by Louis Daguerre
1838 Trail of Tears - mass relocation of American Indians
1839 British force Chinese to expand trade in Opium Wars
1840 Victoria marries Albert of Saxe-Coburg
1840 End of British practice of deporting convicts to Australia
1840 British officially control New Zealand
1840 Upper and Lower Canada re-unified
1840 Pierre Joseph Proudhon propounds anarchist view that "property is theft"
1841 China cedes Hong Kong to Britain
1841 David Livingstone begins African explorations
1841 China cedes Hong Kong to Britain
1846 Great Potato Famine in Ireland
1848 Pre-Raphaelites advocate return to simple naturalism in art
1848 Francis Joseph accedes to Austrian throne after rising
1848 Hungary declares independence from Austrian Empire
1848 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels publish "Communist Manifesto"
1848 Texas becomes part of America after wars with Mexico
1848 California Gold Rush begins
1848 Louis-Philippe abdicates - Second Republic declared
1849 Henry David Thoreau publishes "Civil Disobedience"
1849 Self-government established in Canada
1849 Papal regime restored after rebellion declared Rome a republic
1849 Giuseppe Garibaldi defends Italy against France and Austria
1850 Death of William Wordsworth (poet)
1851 Death of William Turner (artist)
1851 First Great Exhibition in Crystal Palace, London
1851 Gold discovered in Australia
1852 New Zealand's constitution established
1852 Louis Napoleon declares himself Emperor Napoleon III
1854 Crimean War - Russia against England and France
1855 Alexander II becomes Tsar of Russia
1855 David Livingstone "discovers" Victoria Falls
1856 William Gladstone grants home rule to Ireland
1857 Sepoy Rebellion - Indian army mutinies against British
1857 Death of Auguste Comte (philosopher)
1859 Charles Darwin publishes "Origin of Species"
1860 Piedmont and most of Italy united under Garibaldi
1860 Death of Honoré de Balzac (writer)
1861 Emancipation of serfs in Russia
1861 Abraham Lincoln becomes President of America
1861 Start of American Civil War
1861 John Stuart Mill publishes "Utilitarianism"
1861 Victor Emmanel proclaimed King of Italy by first Parliament
1862 Otto von Bismark becomes First Minister of Prussia at its height
1863 Abraham Lincoln gives Gettysburg Address speech
1863 Death of Eugene Delacroix (artist)
1863 Maximilian of Austria made Emperor of Mexico - shot in 1867
1865 Tashkent becomes centre of Russian expansion in Central Asia
1865 End of American Civil War
1865 Abolition of slavery in America
1866 Prussia captures Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark and Austria
1866 Anti-black Ku Klux Klan formed
1866 Swede Alfred Nobel produces dynamite
1867 Death of Michael Faraday (physicist)
1867 End of transportation of criminals to Australia
1867 America buys Alaska from Russia
1867 Confederation of Canada
1867 Confederation of North German States established
1867 Emperor Meiji restored after centuries of Shogun rule
1868 Benjamin Disraeli becomes British Prime Minister
1868 Revolution deposes Queen Isabella II of Spain
1868 Death of Giacchino Rossini (composer)
1869 Suez Canal opened in Egypt
1870 Death of Charles Dickens (writer)
1870 Napoleon III attacks Prussia
1870 Prussia war against France culminates in Siege of Paris
1870 Death of Alexander Dumas (writer)
1870 Rome and Papal states annexed to Kingdom of Italy
1871 Trade unions legalized in Britain
1871 Commune of Paris crushed - Adolphe Thiers made President of French Republic
1871 Prussia under Otto von Bismark annexes Alsace and Lorraine from France
1871 Henry Stanley finds David Livingstone near Lake Tanganyika
1871 Prussia under Otto von Bismark annexes Alsace and Lorraine from France
1871 William I of Prussia proclaimed German Emperor (Kaiser)
1872 Self-rule granted to Cape Colony in South Africa
1873 First Republic of Spain declared
1874 Benjamin Disraeli becomes British Prime minister for second time
1874 First Impressionist exhibition (named after Monet painting)
1876 Death of Mikhail Bakunin (Russian anarchist)
1876 Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone
1876 Great Famine in Southern India kills over 5 million
1876 Custers Last Stand - killed fighting in Indian Wars
1876 Dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz begins in Mexico
1876 Belgium under king Leopold II annexes African Congo
1876 Richard Wagner completes his "Ring" cycle of operas
1877 Queen Victoria proclaimed Empress of India
1877 Thomas Edison invents first phonograph
1877 Satsuma Rebellion in Japan against introduction of new ideas
1878 Salvation Army founded by Rev William Booth
1878 Russo-Turkish War liberates Serbia and Rumania from Turkish rule
1878 Thomas Edison develops electric light
1879 Britain and France take control of Egypt and Suez Canal
1879 Zulu War in South Africa
1880 Death of Gustave Flaubert (writer)
1881 William Gladstone becomes Prime Minister of Britain
1881 Start of pogroms against Russian Jews
1881 Death of Fyodor Dostoyevski (writer)
1881 Wyatt Earp in OK Corral gunfight
1881 French annexe Tunisia and other North African possessions
1882 Turks lose control of most of their old territories
1882 Jesse James shot by own gang member
1882 Germany, Austria and Italy establish Triple Alliance
1883 Revolt against British rule in Sudan
1883 Death of Edouard Manet (artist)
1883 Revolt against British rule in Sudan
1883 Eruption of Krakatoa Volcano, Indonesia (35,000 killed)
1883 Death of Richard Wagner (composer)
1884 Third Parliamentary Reform Bill passed
1884 Russia expands into Turkistan, Caucuses and eastwards
1885 Death of Victor Hugo (writer)
1885 George Eastman markets first box camera
1885 Germany annexes south-western and parts of eastern Africa
1886 All American Indians now in reservations
1886 Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz produce first automobiles
1887 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle writes first Shelock Holmes book
1888 Kaiser William II comes to power
1889 Eiffel Tower built in Paris (designed by Gustave Alexandre Eiffel)
1889 Brazil officially declared a republic
1889 Henry Stanley completes his explorations of Africa
1890 London Underground (electric subway system) opens
1890 Death of Vincent Van Gogh (artist)
1890 Lumière bothers develop motion pictures
1890 Cecil Rhodes becomes Prime Minister of Cape Colony
1890 William II removes Bismark as Chancellor
1891 Death of Arthur Rimbaud (Symbolist poet)
1892 Death of Alfred Lord Tennyson (poet)
1892 Death of Walt Whitman (poet)
1893 British Labour Party formed
1893 New Zealand becomes first country to give vote to women
1893 Death of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (composer)
1894 Nicholas II becomes last Romanov Tsar of Russia
1894 Alfred Dreyfus convicted of treason
1894 Japan invades China - annexes Formosa and Korea
1895 Death of Louis Pasteur (chemist)
1895 Guglielmo Marconi sends first radio message
1895 Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovers x-rays
1896 Klondike Gold Rush in Alaska and Yukon
1896 Siam guarenteed independence from China by Britain and France
1897 Greek-Turkish War
1897 First zeppelin airship launched
1898 Spain loses rest of its empire in Spanish-American War
1898 Horatio Earl Kitchener re-conquers Sudan for Britain
1899 Beginning of Boer War in South Africa
1900 British establish control over much of east and central Africa
1900 Boxer Rising in China attempts to expel all foreigners
1900 Death of Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (philosopher)
1900 Death of Oscar Wilde (writer)

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