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1502 Fanatical Shi'ite Islam develops under Safavids of Persia
1503 Powerful Italian general Caesar Borgia defeated in Spain
1506 Golden Age of Poland begins under Sigismund I and II
1509 Portuguese trading empire established at Goa, South India
1509 Henry VIII succedes to English throne
1510 Portuguese trading empire established at Goa, India
1510 Death of Sandro Botticelli (artist)
1512 Spaniard Vasco Núñez de Balboa first to see Pacific Ocean (from Panama)
1513 Juan Ponce de Leon claims Florida for Spain
1513 James IV of Scotland killed by English forces at Flodden
1513 Niccolo Machiavelli writes "The Prince"
1514 Start of series of wars between Turkish and Persian Empires
1515 Francis I of France takes Milan and much of Northern Italy
1516 Algiers taken by pirate Barbarossa for Holy Roman Empire
1516 Hapsburg Charles V now king over Germany, Netherlands and Spain
1516 Death of Heironymous Bosch (artist)
1516 Sir Thomas More writes "Utopia"
1517 Turks conquer Egypt
1517 Luther publishes 95 Theses - start of Reformation
1519 Sikhism founded in India
1519 Portuguese/Spaniard Ferdinand Magellan rounds South American mainland
1519 Death of Leonardo da Vinci (artist and scientist)
1520 Luther excommunicated
1520 Death of Raphael (artist)
1521 Charles V divides Hapsburg Empire between Austria and Spain
1521 Death of Josquin de Pres (composer)
1521 Mexico conquered for Spain by Hernando Cortes
1522 Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan's expedition for Spain first to circumnavigate globe
1523 Swedes expel Danish overlords
1524 Death of Hans Holbein the Elder (artist)
1525 Charles V of Hapsburg retakes Northern Italy from France
1526 Turks under Suliman the Magnificent take Hungary
1526 Babar (Babur), descendent of Mongol leader Tamerlaine founds
Mughal (Mogul) Empire in India
1526 Hungarian and Bohemian crowns unite with Austrian Hapsburgs
1527 Charles V retakes Northern Italy from France and sacks Rome
1528 Death of Albrecht Durer and Matthias Grunewald (artists)
1529 Turks lay siege to Vienna
1529 Cardinal Wolsey dismissed by Henry VIII
1531 Death of Ulrich Zwingli (religious reformer and statesman)
1533 Ivan IV (the Terrible) crowned Tsar of Russia
1533 Henry VIII marries Anne Boleyn without papal approval
1534 Spaniard Ignatius Loyola founds Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
1535 Dissolution of English monasteries ordered by Henry VIII
1535 Hapsburg Charles V drives Turks back from Hungary
1535 Peru conquered for Spain by Francisco Pizarro
1535 Death of Sir Thomas More (scholar and statesman)
1536 Death of Erasmus (scholar)
1538 Colombia conquered for Spain by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
1540 Spaniard Franciso de Coronado explores North America
1541 Death of Paracelsus (physician and alchemist)
1541 Reformist John Calvin regains authority in Geneva
1543 Polish astronomer Nicolas Copernicus shows that Earth revolves around Sun
1545 Catholic Counter-Reformation after Council of Trent
1546 Death of Barbarossa, Barbary pirate who made conquests for Turkey
1547 Henry VIII dies and his son Edward VI comes to English throne
1548 Mary Queen of Scots flees to France
1549 Spanish Jesuit Francis Xavier tries to convert Japanese to Christianity
1549 "Book of Common Prayer" issued
1551 Portuguese monopolize trade with China from Malacca
1553 Lady Jane Grey briefly made Queen by Earl of Northumberland
1553 Mary succedes to English throne and restores Catholicism
1553 Systematic perscution of Protestants by "Bloody Mary"
1553 Death of François Rabelais (writer and satirist)
1553 Death of Cranach the Elder (artist)
1555 Peace of Augsburg - allows choice of religious denomination
1556 Charles V leaves Austria to Ferdinand and Spain to Philip II
1556 Shaanxi earthquake kills 830,000
1556 Mughal leader Akbar comes to power - controls most of India
1556 Ivan the Terrible increases Russian territory in south and east
1557 Portuguese have trading monopoly in China through Macao
1558 Elizabeth I accedes after Mary's death
1558 Philip II inherits Spain and other lands from Hapsburgs
1561 Mary Queen of Scots returns to Scotland
1562 Sir John Hawkins starts British slave trade in West Indies
1562 Huguenots fight for right to follow Calvinism in France
1564 Death of Michelangelo (artist)
1568 William the Silent leads Dutch in revolt against Hapsburgs
1568 Beginning of English-Spanish maritime feud - Hawkins & Drake
1571 Bornu Empire in Central Sudan at its zenith under Idris III
1572 Massacre of St Bartholemew - Huguenots routed
1572 Poland declares itself a republic
1572 Death of John Knox (Scottish religious reformer)
1576 French Catholic League formed by Guise family
1576 Death of Titian (artist)
1577 Sir Francis Drake begins voyage around world
1578 Dutch provinces fight against Spanish domination
1579 Start of decline of Turkish Empire with death of Sokolli
1580 Dutch sieze many Portuguese trading posts throughout the world
1580 Philip II of Spain annexes Portugal and its dependencies
1581 Netherlands proclaims independence from Spain and wars start
1582 Gregorian calendar introduced by Pope Gregory XIII
1584 Boris Godunov temporarily takes control of Russia
1585 Japan unified under dictator Hideyoshi
1587 Shah Abbas the Great becomes rules of Persia
1587 Mary Queen of Scots executed for treason
1588 Sir Francis Drake of England defeats Spanish Armada
1589 Death of Catherine de Medici ("Queen Mother of France")
1589 Henry IV first Bourbon King of France
1592 Moorish conquest of African Songhai Empire
1594 Death of Tinteretto (artist)
1594 Death of Pierluigi da Palestrina (composer)
1597 Christian converts persecuted in Japan
1598 Edict of Nantes allows Calvinism in France
1600 British East India Company founded
1603 Tokugawa period - feudal Japan finally unified and pacified
1603 Elizabeth I dies - end of Tudor rule in England
1603 Scottish James VI made English James I - first Stuart king
1605 Guy Fawkes' Gunpowder Plot against James' anti-Catholic laws
1606 Dutch explorers land on Australian mainland
1607 First permanent British settlement founded in Virginia, North America
1608 Permanent French colony founded in Quebec by Samuel de Champlain
1609 Dutch republic breaks away from Holy Roman Empire and Spanish rule
1610 Henry IV of France assassinated by Catholic fanatic
1611 "Authorized Version" of Bible printed in Britain
1613 Michael Romanov (first of dynasty) becomes Tsar of Russia
1616 Death of Miguel de Cervantes (writer)
1616 Death of William Shakespeare (dramatist and poet)
1618 Thirty Years' War in Germany to decide Bohemian succession
1618 Sir Walter Raleigh executed
1618 Hohenzollerns of Brandenberg (Prussia) acquire East Prussia
1620 Puritan Pilgrim Father establish colony in New England
1624 Cardinal Richelieu builds up French power
1625 Charles I succedes James I as King of England
1626 Death of Francis Bacon (philosopher and statesman)
1628 Petition of Rights establishes Parliament's rights over King's
1629 Charles I dismisses Parliament and rules alone
1632 King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden ("Lion of the North") dies
1635 Death of Lope de Vega (dramatist)
1637 Death of Ben Johnson (dramatist)
1637 Russian pioneers reach Pacific coast
1638 Death of Peter Breugel the Younger (artist)
1639 East India Company establishes city of Madras
1640 Japan excludes all foreigners
1640 Portugal establishes independence from Spain again
1640 Long Parliament ends Charles I's personal rule
1640 English Civil War starts - Royalist Cavaliers against Puritan Roundheads
1640 Frederick, Great Elector of Brandenberg, expands Prussia
1641 Death of Anthony Van Dyke (artist)
1642 Death of Galileo Galileo (astronomer)
1642 Cardinal Richelieu dies and Cardinal Mazarin takes over
1642 Abel Tasman claims Tasmania for Netherlands - later claimed by Britain
1643 Death of Claudio Monteverde (composer)
1643 Louis XIV ("Sun King") becomes King of France at 5 years old
1644 Manchu Dynasty seizes power and extends Chinese influence further
1645 Death of Grotius (founder of International Law)
1648 Netherlands finally achieves independence from Spain - Peace of Westphalia
1648 Cossack uprising begins Polish demise as a major power
1648 Taj Mahal built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan
1649 Cromwell has Charles I executed and sets up Commonwealth
1650 Death of René Descartes (philosopher and mathematician)
1651 Charles II escapes Cromwell to France
1651 Thomas Hobbes publishes "Leviathon" (philosophical treatise)
1652 Strengthened British navy defeats Dutch in First Dutch War
1652 Dutch establish first colony in South Africa
1652 Dutch establish colony (present day New York) in North America
1653 Cromwell made Lord Protector of England - subdues Ireland
1659 French frontiers enlarged after treaty with Spain
1660 Death of Diego Velázquez (artist)
1660 Royal Society (scientific organization) founded in London
1660 Restoration - Long Parliament dissolved and Charles II restores monarchy
1661 Louis XIV sole ruler of France after Cardinal Mazarin dies
1662 Death of Blaise Pascal (mathematician and philosopher)
1664 New York taken from Dutch by British
1665 Great Plague
1666 Great Fire of London
1667 Death of Baruch Spinoza (philosopher)
1667 Louis XIV starts series of wars to expand French borders
1669 Death of Rembrandt (artist)
1669 Last major eruption of Mount Etna, Sicily (20,000 killed)
1670 Hanseatic League abandoned
1670 Britain establishes Hudson Bay Company in Canada
1673 Death of Molière (dramatist)
1674 Death of John Milton (poet)
1675 Death of Jan Vermeer (artist)
1679 Death of Thomas Hobbes (social philosopher)
1680 Louis XIV annexes Alsace for France
1681 Charles II tries to rule without Parliament
1682 Death of Bartolemé Murillo (artist)
1682 French claim large territories in Louisiana
1682 Peter I (the Great) becomes Tsar of Russia
1683 Second siege of Vienna - last major Turkish attack on Europe
1685 Edict of Nantes revoked - Protestant Huguenots flee France
1685 James II succedes to English throne after Charles' death
1685 Judge Jeffries' "Bloody Assize" after Monmouth's failed coup
1687 Sir Isaac Newton publishes his "Principia"
1687 Lloyds of London insurance company established
1688 Dutch William of Orange (III) invited to take English throne (with Mary)
1688 Death of Sir Henry Morgan (buccaneer and pirate)
1690 William III defeats James and Louis XIV at Boyne, Ireland
1691 Death of George Fox (founder of Quaker sect)
1692 Massacre of Glencoe - English "lesson" to Scottish highlanders
1692 Witchcraft trials in Salem, Massachusetts
1694 Death of Bashö (haiku poet)
1694 Bank of England founded
1695 Death of Henry Purcell (composer)
1695 Peter the Great defeats Turks at Sea of Azoz
1699 Large Turkish concessions to Austria, Hungary and Poland
1699 Death of Jean Racine (dramatist)
1700 Charles XII of Sweden starts Great Northern War against Russia
1700 War of Spanish Succession: France wins and Bourbon made King of Spain

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