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1013 Ethelred the Unready flees to Normandy before the Danes
1016 Danish King Canute comes to English throne
1018 Scotland under Malcolm II annexes Strathclyde and Cumbria
1018 Bulgars subjected by Byzantine Emperor Basil 11
1037 Death of Avicenna (Persian philosopher and physician)
1040 Macbeth becomes king of Scotland
1042 Edward the Confessor becomes king of England
1050 Islamic Berber dynasties established in Sahel
1055 Seljuk Turks capture Baghdad
1066 Norman Conquest of England under William I ("the Conqueror")
1071 Saxon leader Hereward the Wake finally yields to Normans
1075 Seljuk Turks capture Jerusalem
1077 Emperor Henry IV forced to yield to Pope Gregory VII
1080 Death of Lady Godiva (benefactress)
1085 Kingdom of Castile re-conquers Toledo from Moors
1086 Domesday Book compiled by William I
1094 Spanish knight El Cid takes Valencia from Moors
1099 First Crusade under Godfrey of Bouillon re-takes Jerusalem
1100 Inca tribes move into Cusco valley, Peru
1100 Angkor Wat temple built by Khmers in Cambodia
1106 Henry I of England recaptures Normandy
1109 Death of St. Anselm (Italian theologian and philosopher)
1118 Kingdom of Aragon captures Santiago from Moors
1119 Kiev sacked by Slavs and kingdom split
1119 Knights Templar Order founded in Britain
1122 Concordat of Worms established papal right to invest bishops
1123 Death of Omar Khayyam (Persian poet and mathematician)
1135 Stephen takes English crown, and Anarchy begins
1141 Barbarian Chin Dynasty takes over Northern China
1142 Death of Peter Abelard (theologist and romantic)
1148 Second Crusade fails to capture Damascus
1152 Frederick II (Barbarossa) becomes Holy Roman Emperor
1154 Henry II (of Anjou) becomes first Plantagenet King of England
1154 Death of Geoffrey of Monmouth (historian)
1169 Henry II sends Strongbow to subdue Ireland
1169 Eruption of Mount Etna, Sicily (15,000 killed)
1170 Thomas Beckett murdered in Canterbury Cathedral on Henry II's orders
1176 Barbarossa defeated by Lombards - state of Italy founded
1185 Start of feudal epoch (Shoguns) of Kamakura period in Japan
1187 Muslims under Saladin destroy Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
1189 Richard I (the Lionheart) becomes King of England
1191 Zen movement from China becomes popular in Japan
1192 Third Crusade captures Acre but fails to regain Jerusalem
1198 Death of Averroes (Arab philosopher)
1199 John takes English throne while Richard away on Crusades
1200 Cahokia capital of Mississipian cultures of North America
1205 English under John driven out of Normandy and France
1204 Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople - founds Latin Empire
1206 Turkish Sultanate established in Delhi - power centralized
1206 Genghis Khan becomes sole leader of Mongols, starts conquests
1212 Decisive victory of Spaniards over Moors
1212 Children's Crusade ends in disaster - Pied Piper legend
1215 Dominican Order of monks founded in Languedoc
1215 King John forced to sign Magna Carta
1223 Franciscan Order of monks founded
1226 "Summer is icumen in": one of first examples of written music
1226 Mongol forces invade Poland
1230 Ghanaian Empire replaced by Mali, centred around Timbuktu
1230 Teutonic Knights established in Prussia
1240 Batu establishes Mongol "Empire of the Golden Horde"
1241 Mongols under Genghis Khan invade Russia and Central Europe
1246 Alexander Nevsky becomes Grand Duke of Vladimir
1249 First college founded at Oxford (University College)
1256 Hanseatic League formed around Baltic - trade flourishes
1261 Constantinople restored to Byzantine rule after 4th Crusade
1265 Simon de Montford establishes Parliament in England
1266 Spain and Portugal finally throw off Moorish domination
1272 Edward I becomes first true "English" King of England
1272 Last Crusade (Ninth) ends in failure
1273 Rudolph I first Hapsburg Holy Roman Emperor
1274 Mongol attacks on Japan repulsed
1274 Death of Thomas Aquinas (theologian and philosopher)
1279 Mongol Dynasty in China and Asia at its height under Kublai Khan
1284 First college founded at Cambridge (Peterhouse)
1285 France under Philp IV extends French influence
1291 Acre recaptured by Muslims (end of Christian influence in area)
1291 "Everlasting League" forms nucleus of Swiss confederation
1294 Death of Roger Bacon (philosopher and scientist)
1295 "Model Parliament" established
1295 Reports of China brought back to west by Venetian Marco Polo
1296 Edward I makes incursions into Scotland
1308 Death of Duns Scotus (Scottish scholar and philosopher)
1309 Papacy moves to Avignon for over a century
1312 France and Papacy suppress Knights Templar
1312 Swiss patriot William Tell (legendary) foments revolt against Austrian rulers
1314 Scots under Robert Bruce defeat English at Bannockburn
1315 Hapsburgs driven out of Switzerland
1320 Valdislav I crowned King of Poland - reunites territory
1321 Death of Alighieri Dante (poet)
1325 Zenith of Mandingo Empire in Mali
1326 Ottoman Turk Empire begins under Orkhan
1328 Valois Dynasty takes over from House of Capet in France
1328 Treaty of Northampton - full Scottish sovereignty recognized
1333 Casimir the Great becomes King of Poland
1336 Ashikaga period in Japan - feudal lords and Samurai warriors
1337 Death of Giotto di Bondone (artist)
1337 Beginning of Hundred Years' War between England and France
1340 Songhai Empire replaces Mali rule
1348 Black Death plague reaches Britain
1349 Death of William of Occam (philosopher)
1355 Ottoman Suleiman takes Gallipoli - advances into Europe
1358 "The Jaquerie" - French peasant revolt
1363 Mongols re-united under Tamerlaine
1363 Mongol leader Tamerlaine starts conquest of Russia
1368 Ming Dynasty replaces Mongol rule after native rebellion
1378 Death of Francisco Petrarch (poet and scholar)
1380 Venice victorious over Genoa at Battle of Chioggia
1380 Muskovite Russians defeat Mongols
1381 Wat Tyler's Peasant Revolt in England crushed
1384 John Wycliff killed for his Lollard heresies
1385 Portugal achieves independence from Spain
1386 Jagellons Dynasty starts 190 year rule in Poland
1386 Swiss confederation achieves independence from Hapsburgs
1389 Ottoman Turks defeat Christian forces at Kossovo
1397 Denmark, Norway and Sweden unite under Danish Queen Margaret
1398 Mongols under Tamerlaine invade Northern Indiaand sack Delhi
1398 Dick Whittington becomes Mayor of London
1399 Henry IV deposes Richard II - Lancastrian rule in England
1400 Owen Glendower revolts in Wales
1400 Death of Geoffrey Chaucer (writer)
1400 Muslim-influenced Malacca state dominant in South-East Asia
1402 Tamerlaine overthrows Turks in Asia Minor
1410 Poles and Lithuanians under Vladislav II defeat Teutonic Knights
1415 Jan Hus, Bohemian religious reformer, martyred
1415 Battle of Agincourt - Henry V of England victorious in France
1417 First Hohenzollern Margrave of Brandenburg (Prussia)
1420 Filippo Brunelleschi credited with invention of linear perspective in art
1431 Joan of Arc burnt at stake after military campaigns against England
1433 Portuguese Henry the Navigator makes his first explorations
1433 Chinese explorer Cheng Ho reaches East African coast
1434 Cosimo di Medici begins Medici rule in Florence
1435 Donatello makes bronze sculpture "David"
1436 Filippo Brunelleschi designs Duomo of Florence
1438 Albert II first hereditary Hapsburg Holy Roman Empire
1443 Turkish advance westwards set back by European federation in Hungary
1447 Poland and Lithuania unite
1450 Popular discontent erupts in Jack Cade's Rebellion
1453 English finally defeated in France at Castillon - end of Hundred Years' War
1453 Constantinople taken by Turks - end of Byzantine Empire
1455 Death of Fra Angelico (artist)
1455 Wars of the Roses begin between Houses of Lancaster and York
1456 Johann Gutenberg sets up printing press - Mazarin Bible
1461 Louis XI becomes king of France
1462 Muskovite Ivan III first to adopt title of Tsar
1469 Lorenzo di Medici (the Magnificent) rules in Florence
1470 Centralized Incan empire stretches from Ecuador to Argentina
1470 "Kingmaker" Warwick turns Lancastrian and deposes Edward IV
1471 Ivan III takes Novgorod and extends influence
1476 William Caxton sets up first printing press in London
1476 Vlad the Impaler (Dracula) of Wallachia killed by Turkish forces
1477 Charles the Bold defeated at Nancy - end of Rise of Burgundy
1477 Netherlands, Luxembourg and Burgundy brought under German (Hapsburg) control
1479 Aragon and Castile united by marriage of Ferdinand and Isabela
1481 Final defeat of Mongol forces by Russians
1481 Spanish Inquisition begins in Castile
1483 Portuguese travellers discover Congo River
1485 Tudor Henry VII made King of England after Battle of Bosworth Field
1488 Portuguese Bartholomeu Dias first to round Cape of Good Hope
1490 Aztec Empire covers much of Mesoamerica by this time
1492 Genoese Christoher Columbus "discovers" West Indies for Spain
1492 Granada last Spanish city to be re-captured from Moors
1493 Songhai Empire reaches height of power under Sonni Ali
1494 Italy invaded by French under Charles VIII
1496 Spanish crown marries into Austrian House of Hapsburg
1497 John Cabot lands in Canada - later claimed for England
1498 Death of Girolamo Savonarola (preacher and reformer)
1498 Columbus briefly lands on South American mainland
1498 Portuguese Vasco de Gama reaches India by sea
1499 Perkin Warbeck hanged by Henry VII for claiming throne
1500 Pedro Cabral claims Brazil for Portugal
1500 High Renaissance in art centred in Italy

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